Category Archives: Lesson Plans

Lesson for The Choctaws: A Cultural Awakening!

O’siyo. The Choctaw Nation  has come a long way. Here are updated photos and news for these wonderful people. ChoctawLesson Plan for this post

The People

The women are Beautiful…

Choctaw Fair 2012. Site photo:

…And Play a mean game of stickball!

Choctaw Annual Fair. Site

The men are perfect Gentlmen at traditional dances…

Choctaw Fair. Site

And ruthless Warriors in competitive Games!

Choctaw Fair 2012. Site.

There are Famous People of Choctaw descent, such as Phenomenal singer Martha Redbone

Martha Redbone site.

The Brave Choctaw Code Talkers of WWI

The Choctaw Indian Code Talkers of World War I. Talking Feather.

The Books…

Choctaw: A Cultural Awakening, Can be purchased from the tribe.

After the Removal… By Samuel Wells and R. Tubby. Epubbooks

The Choctaw Video

  By  EchospaceDotOrg·

Listen to modern Choctaw speak about their culture, language, and special events.

Choctaw Lesson Plan for this post

Choctaw Lesson Plan with Answer Key

Choctaw Table of Contents

Choctaw Table of Contents

The Choctaw: A Concise History

A Choctaw Myth: The Gift Of Tanchi (Corn)

History of the Choctaw Code Talkers

Teachers’ Guide and Answer Key

“Whenever I introduce Choctaw culture, I am reminded of our Tribal ancestors who still live in our collective memory. The stories of their lives, full of both triumph and tragedy, remind us of our strong Choctaw heritage, and they are the background against which our current renaissance of Choctaw cultural arts, educational achievements, and progressive economic developments are illuminated. What it means to be Choctaw is deeply rooted within each of us. Our identity, ultimately defined by our blood, continues from generation-to-generation. Our strong inner spirit that has sustained us throughout history manifests itself again and again in beautiful and creative ways outwardly towards others.” – Tribal Chief Bealsey Denson, Choctaw Nation – (Excerpt from a Welcome Speech –2004)

Pre-Reading Tasks

Directions: Take turns reading aloud the excerpt from the speech made by Chief Denson.

Highlight or underline those words and phrases which in your opinion are positive and interpret their meaning in your own words.

Prepare a brief description of your culture using as many of the words and phrases you highlighted in Question 1 as you can.

The Choctaw: A Concise History

1. The Choctaw are a proud people with an arduous history. Like their neighbors the Cherokee, the Choctaw were forced to move from their land. Theirs is also a history of intrigue and glory. One reason is that their forefathers played an important role during World War I in this country! In the following pages you’ll learn the meanings of: Code talkers, head flattening, and the Green Corn festival.

2. The antecedents of the Choctaw people were part of a very large group of Indians which inhabited the southern and middle Mississippi valley region as much as 4,000-8,000 years ago. Several Spanish expeditions in the early 1500′s might have contacted the Choctaw, but there is no question that Hernando De Soto’s 1540 expedition encountered them: The Choctaw inflicted a significant loss on De Soto’s men in a battle near present-day Mobile, Alabama in 1541, and De Soto’s expedition never recovered from the violent confrontation.

3. As with all of the other American Indian tribes, the Choctaw had always had conflicts with the various neighbors, most notably the Chickasaw. But the coming of the Europeans greatly intensified the wars and battles.

4. Beginning about 1700, both British and French traders vied for trade relations with the tribes, with the Choctaw ending up allied with the French, and the Chickasaw allied with the British. Besides direct conflicts between the British and French (due to their European wars), the traders stirred up many additional wars between the Choctaw and the Chickasaw tribe. The traders also caused conflict between the Choctaw and the Creeks.

5. When the French and Indian War ended in 1763, the Treaty of Paris removed the French from east of the Mississippi River, and the Choctaw became part of Britain’s empire. During the American Revolution, some Choctaw fought for the colonists under Washington and other generals, while other Choctaw fought on the side of the British.

6. Following the American Revolution in 1783, the Choctaw signed the Treaty of Hopewell with the new United States, placing the tribe under the protection of the new government. However, pressure from the white settlers steadily increased, and by 1800, the Choctaw were beginning to cede some of their lands.

7. In 1811, the noted Shawnee chief Tecumseh was attempting to establish an Indian Confederacy to resist further encroachment. He asked the Choctaw to become part of the confederacy, but the Choctaw chose not to join him and attempted to live in harmony with the U.S. Yet throughout this time, pressure on the Choctaw to leave their traditional grounds steadily increased.

8. In 1830, then-President Andrew Jackson forced the Choctaw to be the first tribe to be removed from their homelands and relocated in Oklahoma. Almost 15,000 traveled, while about 5,000 remained behind in Mississippi. Many died along the path, victims of disease, exposure, and malnutrition.

9. The newly removed Choctaw tribe set about building new lives in Oklahoma, establishing schools and churches, drafting written laws and a constitution, and taking on many of the white settler’s ways.

10. During the American Civil War (1861-1865), most of the Choctaw sided with the Confederacy and several Choctaw battalions were raised, though none saw extensive battle. During World War I (1914-1918) many Choctaw fought, and 14 Choctaw men became Indian “code talkers”, using their language for military communications, which could not be deciphered by the German enemy.

Exercise 1 Vocabulary Practice: Inference

PART A

Locate each of the following words in bold in the story; the numbers in parenthesis indicate the paragraphs where the words can be found.  Next, try to infer the meanings from the context. Use a dictionary to check your answers. Add and highlight any other new  words that you may find.

1. The antecedents of the Choctaw people were part of a very large group of Indians which inhabited the southern and middle Mississippi valley…(2)

2. Several Spanish expeditions in the early 1500’s might have contacted the Choctaw…(2)

3. Beginning about 1700, both British and French traders vied for trade relations with the tribes, (4)

4. …the Choctaw ending up allied with the French, and the Chickasaw allied with the British. (4)

5. pressure from the white settlers steadily increased, and by 1800, the Choctaw were beginning to cede some of their lands. (6)

6. Tecumseh was attempting to establish an Indian Confederacy to resist further encroachment…but the Choctaw chose not to join him and attempted to live in harmony with the U.S. Yet throughout this time…(7)

7. President Andrew Jackson forced the Choctaw to be the first tribe to be removed from their homelands…Many died along the path, victims of disease, exposure, and malnutrition. (8)

8. During the American Civil War (1861-1865), most of the Choctaw sided with the Confederacy and several Choctaw battalions were raised…(10)

9. During World War I (1914-1918)…14 Choctaw men became Indian “code talkers”, using their language for military communications, which could not bedeciphered…(10)

Vocabulary Practice: Sentences

PART B

With your group, create sentences using the vocabulary words.

Exercise 2 Reading Comprehension (True/False)

Directions: Read each of the following statements concerning the reading and decide if it is true(T) or false (F). If the statement is false, correct it. In each case, locate the appropriate part in the reading to confirm your answer.

1. The progenitors of the Choctaw lived 4,000-8,000 years ago.

2. The Choctaw won the battle against DeSoto and his men.

3. The battle occurred near what is today known as Georgia.

4. De Soto recovered from the battle.

5. The Choctaws never had conflicts with other tribes until the Europeans arrived.

6. After the French and Indian War ended, the Choctaw remained allies with the French.

7. During the American Revolution, some Choctaws fought on the side of the Americans, while others fought on the side of the British.

8. The British won the Revolutionary War.

9. As more white settlers moved into their territory, the more the Choctaws fought.

10. The Shawnee Chief Tecumseh wanted the Choctaw to join his fight against the whites.

11. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson allowed the Choctaw to remain on their land with his blessings.

12. During the Civil War, 14 Choctaw men became code talkers for the U.S. military.

Exercise 3 Questions for Reflection and Discussion

1. Although the colonists were steadily moving into their territory, the Choctaw refused to join Tecumseh and the Indian Confederation. Discuss the possible reasons for their refusal.

2. The Choctaw wanted to live “in harmony” with the white settlers. Discuss your reasons for why this arrangement would have or would not have been possible.

3. Discuss the possible reasons why the Choctaw battled the Chickasaw and the Creek Indians.

4. If the Choctaw had joined The Indian Confederation proposed by Tecumseh, would the situation between the white settlers and the tribes have been different?

5. After all of the maltreatment from the U.S., 14 men from the Choctaw tribe became code talkers for the U.S. military during World War I. Why?

Exercise 4 Research Activities

Choose a topic from the following list and prepare a presentation for class or for group discussion.

• World War I

• American Revolution

• Civil War

• Tecumseh

• President Andrew Jackson

Exercise 5 Writing Activities

Directions: Choose one of the following writing activities.

Reread the history of the Choctaw and create a time line for them from 1500-1918.

Select an event from the Choctaw history and write an essay in which you describe the event in detail.

Sources:

• Choctaw History: The Choctaw Trail of Tears

• Wikipedia

A Choctaw Myth:The Gift Of Tanchi (Corn)

Once upon a time there were two Choctaws camped out under a summer moon when they heard a beautiful but sad sound. They walked along the river’s edge following the sound until they came upon a woman standing on a mound of earth.

She was very beautiful, surrounded by light, and wore a dress of white decorated with delicate flowers. Now these two Choctaws had very good manners so they asked her right away how they could help her. “I am hungry,” she said with a small sad voice. The men did not have much food but they gave her their entire supper, and they gave it to her happily. The lovely lady ate only a little and thanked them with a promise.

“If you will go and tell no one you saw me, I will ask my father, the Great Spirit, to give you a great and wondrous gift. Return to this exact spot at the next moon.” A little breeze suddenly blew by and she was gone. The Choctaws returned to their families and said nothing, even though they wanted to.

At the next moon, they quickly returned to the spot but were saddened to see that the woman was not there. But on the exact spot where she stood was a tall green plant with leaves that looked like the swords of the white men. The food this plant gave could be eaten in many different ways, all of which were delicious. The children liked the popcorn it gave best. That plant was the corn plant, of course, a great gift, indeed.

Exercise 1. Vocabulary Practice

Directions: Circle the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word from the reading. Use the context of the sentences to help you figure out the meaning of each word.

1.… until they came upon a woman standing on a mound of earth.

a- the sandy part of earth
b- a small natural hill
c- a shape

2. She was very beautiful, surrounded by light…

a- release
b- encircled
c- smothered

3…wore a dress of white decorated with delicate flowers.

a- embellished
b- stark
c- simple

4. The children liked the popcorn it gave best.

a- popped corn
b- crushed corn
c- sweet corn

5. The lovely lady ate only a little and thanked them with a promise.

a- forgiveness

b- doubt

c- pledge

6. I will ask my father, the Great Spirit, to give you a great and wondrous gift.

a-  dull

b-  remarkable

c- ordinary

7. The food this plant gave could be eaten… all of which were delicious.

a- unsavory

b- appetizing

c- unappetizing

Exercise 2. Questions for Reflection and Discussion

Is there a moral to this myth? If so explain it.

If there a similar myth in your culture, share it with your group.

In a group, create a myth that explains how something came to be.

Exercise 3. Writing Activities

Directions: Choose one of the following and write about the topic:

Write a paragraph in which you explain the reason why the Choctaw created a myth about corn.

With the members of your group compose a myth about how another source of food was created.

The Choctaw People: Part II

Choctaw Culture Then…

Top

1. The Choctaw men were hunters using bows and arrows which they made themselves to hunt deer, wild turkey, rabbit, and other small game animals. In addition to hunting, they were also expert fishermen. They used dugout canoes, which were fashioned from hollowed-out logs by the men. The Choctaw used other handmade tools such as nets and fishing spears. Choctaw women were responsible for the farming. They planted and harvested corn, beans, squash and sunflowers.

2. At first, the men and the women wore clothing made from the skins of the animals they hunted. After meeting the Europeans, they adapted clothing such as full skirts, shirts and cloth jackets. Everyone wore moccasins.

3. The Choctaws were known especially for their beautiful river cane baskets and wonderful woodcarvings. However, when they were forced to move from their homes to Oklahoma, the materials that they once used for their traditional crafts were no longer available. To compensate they switched to making beads, creating beadwork belts and similar items.

4. The Choctaws lived in small villages. Their houses were made from mud plaster and rivercane, with thatched roofs. The men enjoyed sports, so they also allocated space in a field for the game of stickball, including wooden benches for spectators.

5. Within the family, women took care of the home and family members, while the men had the responsibility of protecting their homes against intruders. One interesting note is that before a battle the men painted their faces and bodies with bright colors. Some also had tattoos on their arms and legs. The practices of body painting and tattooing were also executed in preparation for festivals and for certain ceremonies. During these occasions, Choctaw women also painted their faces, but they didn’t paint themselves to the extent that the men did.

6. The political system of the Choctaw was relatively simple. There was the family unit, with the father as head. There were several clans, and every family belonged to a particular clan. Each clan was comprised of many families with a leader. For important issues the clans leaders would meet and in this way decisions were made for the entire tribe.

7. In their religion the Choctaw believed in a deity and had many names for him. One of the popular names was Hashi Ikba, which means “Sun Father”. The Choctaw observed many practices; one was called head flattening, which involved attaching a board to the heads of male infants in order to flatten them. This was a common custom among the southeast Indians. The exact reason behind this practice is not clear.

8. One of the most religious ceremonies was the Green Corn Festival. This festival was both a time of thanksgiving and self-purification. The ceremony took place during the summer. In preparation for the celebration the men would clean all of the public areas, and the women cleaned their homes. First, there was a feast to give thanks for the produce and food from the last year. This was followed by a two-day fast, during which time crimes and social conflicts were discussed with the purpose of allowing them to be forgiven. Finally, there was a fire ritual where all fires were extinguished, the tribe had a moment of silence, and then the religious leader would light a fire that symbolized the beginning of a new year.

Choctaw Culture Now…

1. Although there have been many changes within the culture of the Choctaw, the people work diligently to maintain many of their traditions.

2. The men still hunt but only at specified times, and the women still cook many of the dishes that the Choctaw have enjoyed for generations such as fry bread and hominy. Today there are many grocery stores and supermarkets.

3. Choctaw women still sew and make clothing, although much of the clothes are bought from stores. Many Choctaw wear still wear moccasins, and during religious ceremonies and festivals the people will wear their traditional regalia.

4. The art of basket weaving, and bead work are still practiced. There are centers where children attend sessions to learn how to weave, make baskets and do the beadwork of their ancestors. In addition to this, many of the cultural dances are still taught.

5. The Choctaw live in regular homes and in apartments on tribal land.

6. Within the family both men and women are equal partners. Women still take care of their homes, and many have jobs outside of the home.

7. The Choctaw have a stable but complex Tribal government. The Tribal governmental structure has been in place since 1945. In that year, a Tribal constitution was ratified, and a representative, democratic form of government was established, with equal representation among all Choctaw communities. The government is headed by an elected Tribal Chief, who serves four-year terms. The current leader of the largest group, located in Mississippi, is Chief Beasley Denson. There are several existing communities within the government, including one that exists in Oklahoma. The Tribe also elects a seventeen-member Tribal Council, with those officials serving four-year terms.

8. Today the people are engaged in many thriving business enterprises, including a casino. They also boast a large and successful education system. Women are granted the same positions as men in the work force.

9. High-tech industry located on the Reservation includes Choctaw Geo-Imaging Enterprise and joint projects with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. These are just a few examples of the successful business enterprises in which the Tribe is involved. The tribe continues to grow and flourish.

10. The religious practices of the Choctaw today are complex. Many still celebrate traditional occasions, which include the annual Choctaw Indian Fair that is held each July on the Choctaw Indian Reservation. Spring festivals are also held in each of the Choctaw communities. Thanksgiving brings the annual Choctaw Thanksgiving Feast. All of these events give Tribal members an opportunity to gather as a Choctaw community and celebrate the Tribe’s way of life, including all Choctaw traditions.

Exercise 1. Reading Comprehension (True/False/Not Applicable)

Directions: Read each of the following statements concerning the reading and decide if it is true, false, or not applicable (NA). Sometimes information may be true but not reported in the reading, in which case the question would not be applicable. If the statement is false, correct it. In each case, locate the appropriate part in the reading to confirm your answer.

The Choctaw Then…

The Choctaw used horses for transportation.

European mode of dress was adapted by the Choctaw.

After their relocation the Choctaw continued making their traditional baskets.

They began creating bead work belts.

The men loved sports.

Before a battle men tattooed symbols of war on their arms and legs.

Women also painted their faces sometimes.

Important tribal decisions were made by the Shaman.

The women flattened an infants head to make room in his cradle.

The Green Corn Festival was the time for thankfulness and self-purification.

The Choctaw Today…

Today, the Choctaw men still use bows and arrows to hunts.

Much of the clothing worn by the women today is sewn by hand.

Basket weaving and bead work are taught to children.

The Choctaw wear their regalia for special occasions only.

The Choctaw women are treated as equals to men in the workforce.

Some Choctaws are Christians.

Exercise 2.  Questions for Reflection and Discussion

Provide possible reasons for the men painting and tattooing their faces and bodies before a battle.

What could have been the significance of having the heads of male infants flattened?

What made the Choctaw adapt European style of dress?

Sources:

The Choctaw Trail of Tears

Choctaw Culture

Wikipedia-The Choctaw

History of the Choctaw Code Talkers

Code talking began in the United States during World War I. The American Military used the complex American Indian languages as code, to keep the German forces from intercepting and decoding American military information.

There are variations on the story of how the Choctaw men were discovered speaking their language, while in the military. One version begins as follows:

“Captain Lawrence, commander of one of the companies, was strolling through the company area when he happened to overhear Solomon Lewis and Mitchell Bobb conversing in their native Choctaw language.

After listening for a few moments, he called Lewis aside. “Corporal,” he asked,” how many of you Choctaw boys do we have in this battalion?”

After a conference with Bobb, Lewis told the Captain, “We have eight men who speak fluent Choctaw in the battalion, sir.” *

However the story began, it is fact that the Choctaw were the first tribe to be recognized as “code talkers”. There are eight men who were given credit as being part of the original group of Choctaws instrumental in helping the American Military Force win significant key battles, as “code talkers’. All were born in the Choctaw Nation.

Unfortunately, there was little mention of the Choctaw Code Talkers after W W I  mainly because the men did not discuss their roles during war.  Both the term, and the Choctaw association to the term  died out. It resurfaced again during World War II, when Navajo speakers were recruited especially by the Marines to serve in their standard communications units located in the Pacific.

Today the term code talkers is strongly associated to the Navajo, especially in “Hollywood” movies. One reason given for this is that because the Navajos had a history of fighting wars against the United States, they served as a more “lively” topic for “make-believe” films. This was in contrast to   the quiet, organized, agrarian Choctaws, who adapted the American way of government for their own tribal affairs,  including  the basics of the U.S. Constitution.

In addition to the eight men mentioned, there were  other Choctaw soldiers who  contributed their efforts during the war, and their names were placed on the Choctaw War Memorial which was erected in 1995 at the Choctaw Capitol Building in Tuskahoma, Oklahoma. It includes a huge section of granite dedicated to the Choctaw Code Talkers.

Other American Indian Code Talkers for the United States Army during World War II, were the Cherokee, Lakota, Comanche, and Meskwaki soldiers.

Questions for Reflection and Discussion

1. In what country did “code talking” begin?

2. During what  major event did code talking begin?

3. Which language was first used for code talking?

4. Why was it necessary to transmit messages in code?

5. Why didn’t the Choctaws receive credit as being the first code talkers during WWI?

6. In films today, which tribe is noted as being code talkers?

7. Have the Choctaw Code Talkers been honored ? Where?

Code Talkers of WWI

Code Talker-Wikipedia

Teachers’ Guide and Answer Key

Note To Teachers:

The primary goal of the content of this reading material is to raise students’ awareness of the American Indian people living in the United States today, and to view them as an integral part of American society. My hope is that students will see the Native People of this country as professional workers, students,, parents, and leaders of their communities.

Activities:

The construction of the exercises makes the reading material more of a communicative activity, and help students better understand the content. There are various pre-reading, while-reading and post-reading tasks for each reading selection. Although the majority of the exercises are suggested for group work, especially during class, students can complete the activities independently as homework assignments. At the following class meeting, their responses can be used as the basis for group discussions. The research activities can also be completed individually or as collaborative group projects. I offer some suggestions for some of the activities throughout the lesson.

Language Skills

The target language skills for the lessons are primarily reading and speaking, however, tasks for writing, and research activities are also included. These exercises are intended for ESL students, but everyone can use them. Although the reading level is high-intermediate to advanced, teachers can modify the material as needed for their level of learners.

Answer Key:

Pre-reading Discussion Questions

Some possible responses:

1. Positive words and phrases: triumph– strong Choctaw heritage– renaissance of Choctaw cultural arts– educational achievements– progressive economic– development– strong inner spirit has sustained us– beautiful and creative ways– outwardly towards others.

2. Students choice.

Exercise 1- Vocabulary Practice: Part A Inference

antecedents noun. someone from whom you are descended (but usually more remote than a grandparent) (para. 2)

expedition noun a military campaign designed to achieve a specific objective in a foreign country. (para. 2)

vied verb compete for something; engage in a contest; measure oneself against others. (para. 4)

allied verb joined by treaty or agreement. (para. 4)

cede verb relinquish possession or control over. (para. 6)

harmony noun compatibility in opinion and action. (para. 7)

malnutrition noun a state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or unbalanced diet. (para. 8)

battalions noun. (in the Military). a ground force unit composed of a headquarters and two or more companies or similar units. (para. 10)

deciphered verb To read or interpret ambiguous, obscure, or illegible matter. (para. 10)

Vocabulary Practice Part B Sentences – Students choice

Exercise 2- Reading Comprehension (True / False)

True

True

False

False

False

True

True

False

False

True

False

True

Exercise 3- Questions for Reflection and Discussion

Possible Answers:

The Choctaw were tired of fighting. Maybe they felt it was useless to fight because the white settlers continued to enter their lands.

The settlers outnumbered the Indians and they continued to enter the country in vast numbers, trying to live in peace with the settlers would have been possible, as long as the white settlers didn’t encroach on too much of the Choctaw’s land.

Power for land, personal vendettas, racial or cultural conflicts.

Maybe, there would have been a larger number of Indians, and maybe they would have had a better chance to overpower the settlers.

Perhaps at that point in time the Choctaw felt that helping the country of their birth win the war was important.

Exercise 4 Research Activities-(Students’ Choice)

• World War I

• American Revolution

• Civil War

• Tecumseh

• President Andrew Jackson

Exercise 5 Writing Activities

Possible Responses:

I. Historical Timeline for the Choctaw (1500-1918):

1500s–Might have been first contact with Spaniards

1540– Definite contact with DeSoto

1700s–Choctaw become allies with the British army

1763—End of French and Indian War

1783—End of American Revolutionary War

1800s—Choctaw ceded lands to new government

1811—Choctaw refuse to join Tecumseh’s Indians Confederacy

1830—Choctaw forced to leave their homeland; relocated to Oklahoma

(1861-1865)—Civil War and Choctaw sided with the confederacy

(1914-19180—World War I- 14 Choctaw men became the first Indian Code Talkers

II. Students’ Choice.

A CHOCTAW MYTH: THE GIFT OF TANCHI (CORN)

Exercise 1 Vocabulary Practice

mound – b.

surrounded – b.

decorated – a.

promise – c.

wondrous – b.

delicious – b.

popcorn – a.

Exercise 2 Questions for Reflection and Discussion

Possible responses:

Is there a moral to this myth? “ Be kind to people because you never know to whom you’re speaking”.

Students choice

Students choice.

Exercise 3. Writing Activities

Students Choice

Part II: CHOCTAW CULTURE

Exercise 1. Reading Comprehension (True / False / Not Applicable [-NA])

Choctaw Culture Then…

NA

True

True

False (para. 3)

True

True

True

False (para. 5)

NA

True

True

Choctaw Culture Now…

True

False (para 3)

True

True

True

NA

Exercise 2- Questions for Reflection and Discussion

Possible Responses:

Men painted themselves to appear more fierce to their opponents or for religious purposes.

A flat head might have signified great intelligence, or wealth.

The Choctaw felt that the European dress was pretty, or they wanted to be part of the culture that was becoming dominant.

Choctaw Code Talkers

Questions for Comprehension and  Discussion

1. The United States.

2. During World War I.

3. The Choctaw language.

4. It was necessary so that the Germans couldn’t decode the U.S.military massages.

5. The Choctaws did not talk to other people about their part in the war.

6. The Navajos are noted as being the first code talkers.

7. Yes. There is a monument located in the Choctaw Capitol.

 

Category: Lesson Plans

Talking Feather-Extended Blackfoot Lesson Plan

O’siyo. This week for Teachers and students we’ll focus on the Blackfoot Nation. This is an Integrated skills lesson intended for L2 learners at the intermediate to advanced level of English. However, teachers can modify the material as needed for their level of learners. The construction of the exercises makes the reading material more of a communicative activity, and helps students to better understand the content.

Note: All Lesson Plans on this site are the Original Work and Property of Amerindian7. The material is for Educational use with proper acknowledgement. Please be certain to read Talking Feather’s Terms of Use Policy. All additional reference material and photo sources are identified.

“What is life?” It is the flash of a firefly in the night. It is the breath of a buffalo in the winter time. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself on the sunset.” ~Crowfoot~ Blackfoot Chief –Excerpt from: Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes By Carl Waldman

Noted Members of the Blackfeet Nation

NCAI President Tex Hall, left, Elouise Cobell (November 5, 1945 – October 16, 2011) of the Blackfeet Tribe of Montana and Jimmy Goddard from the same tribe appear on Capitol Hill.Terry Ashe : AP

“Elouise Cobell,  (November 5, 1945 – October 16, 2011).  A member of the Blackfeet Nation, led a 15-year legal fight to force the U.S. government to account for more than a century of mismanaged Indian land royalties.  Sadly, She died of complications from cancer in 2011.”

Donald Pepion, a member of the Blackfeet Nation and Professor at NMU, participated Diamond Jubilee, an equestrian- themed event honoring the 60-year reign of Queen Elizabeth II of England. By A. Murphy Las Cruces Sun-News

Leon Rattler, a member of the Blackfeet Tribe, speaks about art and the healing process during the “Journey to Wellness- A Spiritual Endeavor” conference. (James Woodcock:Billings Gazette)

“Tribes are losing their languages and traditions as their elders die. That’s doubly sad because those same traditions can be used to confront today’s challenges, tribal leaders said at a meeting on spirituality and wellness this week of the Montana-Wyoming Tribal Leaders Council.”

Chief Crowfoot, c. 1924. Painting by James Henderson, Collection of the Art Gallery of Alberta.

“Crowfoot (Isapo-Muxika) was the most famous principal Chief and spokesperson for the Blackfoot Confederacy in the latter part of the 19th century. Although he had lost most of his children to diseases spread to the Blackfeet by non-Indians, he strived to prevent further bloodshed and was instrumental in having his people sign the treaty with Canada in 1877.”- Excerpt: Crowfoot – Blackfoot Chief, from Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes By Carl Waldman.

Books of Interest about the Blackfeet Nation

Blackfoot Indian Culture Blackfoot History and Culture (Native American Library) By H. Dwyer and M. Stout.

 

Blackfoot Ways of Knowing: The Worldview of the Siksikaitsitapi by Betty Bastien, Duane Mistaken Chief and Jurgen W. Kremer.

 

Blackfeet: Artists of the Northern Plains : The Scriver Collection of Blackfeet Indian Artifacts…By Bob Scriver

 

Crowfoot-Chief of the Blackfeet By Hugh Dempsey.

Blackfoot Lesson Plan (with Answer Key)

“The white man’s police have protected us only as well as the feathers of a bird protect it from the frosts of winter.”–Crowfoot – Blackfoot Chief

Pre-Reading Tasks for Discussion

1. In your own words, explain the meaning of the statement from Chief Crowfoot.

2. After reading the history of the Blackfoot Indians, read Chief Crowfoot’s statement again, and decide if this was a truthful statement or not. Provide examples from the history reading to support your point.

The Blackfoot: A Concise History

1. The Blackfoot Indians, originally known as Niitsitapi, were erroneously referred to as Blackfoot. Although the tribe resides in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, anthropologists believe that they originated from the upper region of North America, and progressively made their way over to the Plains, where they became adapted to the land. The name Blackfoot is said to have come from the color of the moccasins they wore. The color is said to have come from dying the bottoms black. There is also the guess that they traveled through the ashes from prairie fires which turned their moccasins black.

2. The Indians relied heavily on the buffalo for food. Buffalo meat lasted a long time and could be dried and stored for the winter. This was important to the Blackfoot because the winters were long and harsh on the Plains. The buffalo also provided skins for clothing, such as robes and moccasins. The skin was also used as teepee coverings, which kept their shelters warm during the cold winter months. The soap that the Blackfoot used was made from buffalo fat.

3. The first known encounter with whites occurred in 1806, during the Lewis and Clark expedition. As the famous explorers traveled through the Missouri River area, they were confronted by Blackfoot warriors. It is reported that the Blackfoot attempted to steal guns from Lewis’ men because they (the Blackfoot) knew the U.S. government traded guns with the Shoshone and the Nez Perce, tribes who were enemies of the Blackfoot. During the struggle, two warriors were killed. No more was written about this occurrence. For the next ten years the Blackfeet traded with British traders in Canada. They traded animal skins for guns and bullets.

4. The constant contact with European people caused an outbreak of disease among the Blackfoot, mostly cholera and smallpox. The following is a case in point:

“…In one instance in 1837, American Fur Company steamboat, the St. Peter’s, was headed to Fort Union and contracted smallpox on the way. They continued to send a smaller vessel with supplies farther up the river to posts among the [Niitsitapi [Backfoot]. The Niitsitapi contracted the disease and eventually 6000 died, marking an end to their dominant reign over the Plains. Had Hudson’s Bay Company employed English Doctor Edward Jenner’s forty one year old technique of injecting cowpox to make people immune to smallpox, they could have prevented the epidemic they created…”

5. During the mid 1800s, in addition to the smallpox outbreak, the Blackfoot found that their food supply was running out. This was because white hunters were hunting the buffalo (the main food source for the tribe) until the animals were completely gone. In 1855, Blackfoot leader Chief Lame Bull made a peace treaty with the U.S. government. The Lame Bull Treaty promised the Blackfoot twenty thousand dollars in goods and services in exchange for their moving to a reservation. It was a dismal time for the Blackfoot. The following is a description of that period:

“…In 1860, very few buffalo were left, and they became completely dependent on the supplies from the treaty, which were spoiled most the time because it took so long for them to receive it. Hungry and desperate Blackfoot raided white settlements for food and supplies and causing a stir with the United States Army. In January of 1870, the army had attacked, out of revenge, a peaceful Niitsitapi village of 219 people, and when they got through, only 46 remained. Finally, the winter of 1883-1884 became known as “Starvation Winter” because no government supplies came in, there was no buffalo, and 600 more Niitsitapi died of hunger…”

6. The U.S. government passed laws that produced negative effects on the Blackfoot. Laws such as changing the reservation border, which provided the Indians with less land, that they were never compensated for, and caused groups of the tribe to move to Canada. Only one group remained on the reservation in Montana. In 1898, the government dismantled tribal governments and outlawed the practice of traditional religions. Blackfoot children were forced to leave their parents and attend boarding schools, where they were forbidden to speak their native language. The children were also forced to wear non-Indian clothing as a means of assimilating them into the white American society.

7. In 1934 the Indian Reservation Act supported the rights of tribes. The act allowed tribes to choose their own government, and to openly practice their cultural traditions. In 1935 the Blackfoot Nation of Montana began their Tribal business Council and their own Constitution, under their own government.

8. Today many Blackfoot live on reserves in Canada, and on the Montana reservation. The Blackfoot sold a large portion of their land to the U.S. thinking there was gold or copper mines, but there was no evidence of either. The land they sold became officially known as Glacier National Park. This is a high rate of unemployment on the Blackfoot Reservation. The main source of income is farming, but there aren’t enough jobs. Many Indians leave the reservation to seek work in other towns and cities. There are Blackfoot owned businesses such as the Blackfoot Writing company, and a group that makes clothing and moccasins. In 1974, they opened the Blackfoot Community College in Browning, Montana. As of 1979, the Montana state government requires all public school teachers to have background in American Indian studies.

Exercise 1 Vocabulary Practice

Directions: The vocabulary words in bold font are from the reading selection you’ve just finished. Find and highlight each of the following words in the paragraphs indicated in parenthesis, then infer the meanings from the context. Highlight any additional words that you aren’t familiar with and do the same with those. Check your answers with your group members, and then refer to your dictionary or thesaurus to confirm your guesses.

1. The Blackfoot Indians, originally known as Niitsitapi, were erroneously referred to as Blackfoot. (1)

2. anthropologists believe that they originated from the upper region of North America (1)

3. …made their way over to the Plains, where they became adapted to the land… (1)

4. The name Blackfoot is said to have come from the color of the moccasins they wore.(1)

5. The Indians relied heavily on the buffalo for food. (2)

6. The first known encounter with whites occurred in 1806, during the Lewis and Clark expedition (3)

7. …they were confronted by Blackfoot warriors. (3)

8. …an outbreak of disease among the Blackfoot, mostly cholera (4)

9. …and smallpox.(4)

10. Doctor Edward Jenner’s forty one year old technique of injecting cowpox to make people immune to smallpox, they could have prevented the epidemic they created… (4)

11. Chief Lame Bull made a peace treaty with the U.S. government. (5)

12. the government dismantled tribal governments and outlawed the practice of traditional religions 6)

13. The children were also forced to wear non-Indian clothing as a means of assimilating them into the white American society. (6)

14. This is a high rate of unemployment on the Blackfoot Reservation.(8

Exercise 2 Discussion Questions for Comprehension

1. Where did the Blackfoot originate from?

2. Name three things that the Indians used the buffalo for?

3. Were the explorers Lewis and Clark looking for the Blackfoot Indians?

4. Why did the Blackfoot warriors attempt to take guns away from the men in the expedition?

5. Why didn’t the men from the Hudson Bay Company give the medicine to the Blackfoot?

6. Describe what occurred during the period known as Starvation Winter.

7. Explain why the Blackfoot children taken away from their families. Why weren’t the adults taken?

8. Provide reasons for the high unemployment rate on the Blackfoot Reservation today.

Exercise 3 Research Activities

Directions: Choose a person or an event from the following list for research and prepare a presentation for class or for group discussion.

Lewis and Clark

Edward Jenner

Chief Lame Bull

The Lame Bull Treaty

Exercise 4 Writing Activities

Write an essay in which you express your opinion about the events leading up to the period known as the Starvation Winter.

Write an essay in which you discuss the small pox epidemic and the effect it had on the Blackfoot and other tribes.

Sources:

• Wikipedia

 The Blackfeet Nation

Blackfoot MythThe Berries in the Stream

One day Coyote was walking along and he was very hungry. He came to the edge of a stream and there in the water he saw some bright red berries. He dived into the water, right to the bottom of the stream, but could find no berries.
As soon as he got up on the bank he waited for the water to clear. There were the berries again, right where he’d seen them the first time. He dived in again. He searched the bottom very carefully with his hands but still couldn’t find any berries! Now Coyote was angry.
Another time he tried, but no luck. Finally he thought he had a way to get them. He tied rocks to his legs to make himself heavy so he would stay down longer. He jumped in and searched over the whole bottom but still could find no berries.
He almost drowned before he could pull himself out on the bank where he fell down exhausted. Right there above him he saw the berries! They had only been reflections in the water! Coyote got very angry. He picked up a stick and began to beat the berry bush.

Vocabulary Practice

Directions: Read the sentences below, then choose the correct meaning for the words in bold taken from the story you have just read.

The coyote howled, then licked his paws.
1. A coyote is:___

a. the name of a person.
b. an animal resembling a dog.
c. an animal similar to an elephant.

2. He came to the stream and there in the water, swam the fish.  A stream is a:

a. small body of water.
b. large fish tank.
c. type of park.

3. He dived into the water and hit the bottom of the pool.  To dive means:

a. jump into something (like water)
b. swim
c. go fishing.

4. After swimming, the man rested on the grassy bank.  A bank is a:

a. place to keep money.
b. bed.
c. the edge of a stream or river

5. The woman lost her gloves, so she searched the room for them. To search is to:

a. wear
b. buy
c. look for

6. After running 20 miles, the girl fell down on the ground exhausted. exhausted means:

a. thirsty
b. very tired
c. full of energy

7. She looked into the mirror, and saw her own reflection. A reflection is:

a. an image of one’s self.
b. a new hairstyle
c. a thought about something

Understanding Content (True/False)

Directions: Based on the story you’ve just read, write either true or false in the spaces next to each sentence below.
1. ___Coyote wanted the berries.
2. ___Coyote tried to get apples.
3. ___Coyote dived into the stream to get the berries.
4. ___Coyote finally found the berries at the end of the story.
5. ___Coyote wanted the berries because he was hungry.
6. ___After Coyote became exhausted from diving he went home.
7. ___Once Coyote got the berries, he was very happy.

Photo Game

Place students in groups, and have them view each photo at a time. Have them think of questions they’d like to ask the person. They could also collaborate on  a story about each person in the photos.

Blackfoot Mother and child. Edu/Skywise/legends.

Blackfoot Indian Chief Big Spring. Indian Pictures.

 Elouise Cobell-  Photo credit- Diego M. Radzinschi-Site- Future-ish.com

A Blackfoot Indian on his horse.

Teachers’ Guide & Answer Key

Note To Teachers:
The goal of this material is to raise students’ awareness of the American Indian people living in the United States today, and to encourage learners to view Native Indians as an integral part of American society. My hope is that students will see the native people of this country as workers, students, professionals, parents, and leaders of their communities.
Activities:
The construction of the exercises makes the reading material more of a communicative activity, and helps students to better understand the content. There are various pre-reading, while-reading and post-reading tasks for each reading selection. Although the majority of the exercises are suggested for group work, especially during class, students can complete the activities independently as homework assignments. At the following class meeting, their responses can be used as the basis for group discussions. The research activities can also be completed individually or as collaborative group projects. I offer some suggestions for some of the activities throughout the lessons.
Language Skills
The target skills for the lessons are primarily reading and speaking, however, tasks for writing, and research activities are also included. These exercises are intended for ESL students, but everyone can use them. Although the reading level is high-intermediate to advanced, teachers can modify the material as needed for their level of learners.

Answer Key

Reading Tasks for Discussion

1. Students’ choice
2. Students’ choice

The Blackfoot: A Concise History

Exercise 1 Vocabulary Practice

1. erroneously -adverb-wrong; incorrect-

2. anthropologists- noun-a person who studies human societies and cultures and their development.

3. adapted -adapt verb adjust to a different situation or condition

4. moccasins- noun sandal, shoe

5. buffalo noun- an animal related to the cow, only bigger.

6. expedition- noun journey; people on a journey

7. confronted- confront verb challenge

8. cholera- noun an acute, infectious disease, endemic in India and China and occasionally epidemic elsewhere, characterized by profuse

9. smallpox -noun Pathology.an acute, highly contagious, febrile disease, caused by the variola virus, and characterized by a pustular eruption that often leaves permanent pits or scars: eradicated worldwide by vaccination programs.

10. epidemic -Also, ep·i·dem·i·cal. (of a disease) affecting many persons at the same time, and spreading from person to person in a locality where the disease is not permanently prevalent.

11. treaty -noun, plural -ties.a formal agreement between two or more states in reference to peace, alliance, commerce, or other international relations.

12. dismantled- verb- to deprive or strip of apparatus, furniture, equipment, defenses, etc.: to dismantle a ship; to dismantle a fortress.

13. assimilating- as·sim·i·late to bring into conformity with the customs, attitudes, etc., of a group, nation, or the like; adapt or adjust:

14. unemployment-nounthe state of being unemployed, especially involuntarily:without a job.

Exercise 2 Discussion Questions for Comprehension

1. Where did the Blackfoot originate from?

anthropologists believe that they originated from the upper region of North America, and progressively made their way over to the Plains, where they became adapted to the land.

2. Name three things that the Indians used the buffalo for?

Food and clothing.

3. Were the explorers Lewis and Clark looking for the Blackfoot Indians?

No, As the famous explorers traveled through the Missouri River area, they were confronted by Blackfoot warriors.

4. Why did the Blackfoot warriors attempt to take guns away from the men in the expedition?

It’s reported that the Blackfoot attempted to steal guns from Lewis’ men because they (the Blackfoot) knew the U.S. government traded guns with the Shoshone and the Nez Perce, tribes who were enemies of the Blackfoot.

5. Why didn’t the men from the Hudson Bay Company give the medicine to the Blackfoot?

In 1837, American Fur Company steamboat, the St. Peter’s, was headed to Fort Union and contracted smallpox on the way. They continued to send a smaller vessel with supplies farther up the river to posts among the [Niitsitapi [Backfoot]. The Niitsitapi contracted the disease and eventually 6000 died, marking an end to their dominant reign over the Plains. Had Hudson’s Bay Company employed English Doctor Edward Jenner’s forty one year old technique of injecting cowpox to make people immune to smallpox, they could have prevented the epidemic they created…

6. Describe what occurred during the period known as Starvation Winter.

In 1860, very few buffalo were left, and they became completely dependent on the supplies from the treaty, which were spoiled most the time because it took so long for them to receive it. Hungry and desperate Blackfoot raided white settlements for food and supplies and causing a stir with the United States Army. Finally, the winter of 1883-1884 became known as “Starvation Winter” because no government supplies came in, there was no buffalo, and 600 more Niitsitapi died of hunger…

7. Explain why the Blackfoot children taken away from their families. Why weren’t the adults taken?

Blackfoot children were forced to leave their parents and attend boarding schools, where they were forbidden to speak their native language. The children were also forced to wear non-Indian clothing as a means of assimilating them into the white American society.The children were young and could taught to assimilate easier than the adults.

8. Provide reasons for the high unemployment rate on the Blackfoot Reservation today.

The Blackfoot sold a large portion of their land to the U.S. thinking there was gold or copper mines, but there was no evidence of either. This is a high rate of unemployment on the Blackfoot Reservation. The main source of income is farming, but there aren’t enough jobs.

Exercise 3 Research Activities

student’ choice
Exercise 4 Writing Activities

Students’ choice

Blackfoot Myth:Vocabulary Practice

1. b 2. a 3. a 4. c 5. c 6.b 7.a

Understanding Content (True/False)
1. T 2. F 3. T 4. T 5. T 6.T 7.F

Teachers will find free and Complete Lesson Plans with Answer Keys on the following U.S. tribes: Apache, Blackfeet, Cherokee, Choctaw, Crow, Iroquois, Kwakiutl, Mohawk (read about the fascinating “Sky Walkers”)  Navajo, Shawnee, Sioux, and Zuni.

We also offer our unique and informative Tribalpediawhich offers concise historical and current material about many Native tribes.  Included are Discussion Questions for students. Visit some of the posts from Talking Feather!

 

Category: Lesson Plans

Talking Feather: ESL and American Indians: Extended Apache Lesson Plan

O’siyo. Talking Feather is (and always has been) an *English as a Second Language site. For the next several weeks we’ll be reviewing the  lesson plans especially  for teachers working with L2 learners. Each plan has a Guide for teachers and an Answer Key. This week we’ll begin with the Apache Tribe. While you can still find the original Lesson Plans on this site, we’ll be updating them with new material. In between lessons we’ll post relevant articles about  American Indians. We hope that you’ll find the material useful in your classrooms. Enjoy!

*English as a second language (ESL) is the use or study of English by speakers with different native languages.

Beautiful Apache Portraits. Wikipedia

Beautiful Apache Portraits. Wikipedia

Goals:The goal of this material is to raise students’ awareness of the American Indian people living in the United States today  and to encourage L2 learners to view Native Indians as an integral part of American society.   Students from different countries  will see the Native People as workers, students, professionals, parents, and leaders of their communities. 

Teachers:  A Note About the Activities:  The construction of the exercises makes the reading material more of a communicative activity, and helps students to better understand the content. There are various pre-reading, while-reading and post-reading tasks for each reading selection. Although the majority of the exercises are suggested for group work, especially during class, students can complete the activities independently as homework assignments. At the following class meeting, their responses can be used as the basis for group discussions. The research activities can also be completed individually or as collaborative group projects. I offer some suggestions for some of the activities throughout the lessons.

Language Skills

The target skills for the lessons are primarily reading and speaking, however, tasks for writing, and research activities are also included. These exercises are intended for ESL students, but everyone can use them. Although the reading level is high-intermediate to advanced, teachers can modify the material as needed for their level of learners.

Significance of ”The Talking Feather” in the ESL Classroom

The Talking Feather method is still used in many American schools (both ESL and non-ESL), especially with very young children. Although the object the speaker holds may not always be a Feather, or a Stick, it is something equally symbolic to the children. It is effective as a tool to teach children the benefits of listening to others. As teachers we are constantly listening to our students. It was by listening to my students the idea of this site was created.

The Internet TESL Journal Read an excerpt from a teacher who discusses the value of  applying the “Talking Feather” method  in her classroom.

APACHE  Lesson Plan

“I cannot think that we are useless or God would not have created us. There is one God looking down on us all. We are all the children of one God. The sun, the darkness, the winds are all listening to what we have to say.

The soldiers never explained to the government when an Indian was wronged, but reported the misdeeds of the Indians. We took an oath not to do any wrong to each other .

I cannot think that we are useless or God would not have created us. There is one God looking down on us all. We are all the children of one God. The sun, the darkness, the winds are all listening to what we have to say.

I was born on the prairies where the wind blew free and there was nothing to break the light of the sun. I was born where there were no enclosures.” -Geronimo, Apache Medicine Man

Pre-Reading Discussion Questions

1. Choose one or two sayings from above by Geronimo and interpret them using  your own words, then share your interpretation with your group.

The Apache: A Concise History

1. The Apache were (and still are) composed of many different nations, and there are some differences in their history, language and culture, but all of the people are still related and are known as Apache. The Apache were known for their skills as warriors, especially their guerilla war tactics. The name Apache struck fear in the hearts of the Pueblo tribes, and others including the Spanish, Mexican and American settlers. The Apache raided the Pueblo villages for food and livestock. When the Spaniards arrived they hunted Indians to serve as slaves in the silver mines of Chihuahua in northern Mexico. This in turn, caused the Apache to raid the Spanish settlements for cattle, horses, firearms and captives. The fighting prowess of the Apaches became legendary. After the Mexican-American War, the United States took control of the New Mexico and Arizona regions.   In July of 1869, United States Colonel John Green led a scouting expedition into the White Mountain area, with the intent of killing or capturing any Apache people they encountered.

2. The following is an excerpt of that encounter:
…Army scouts reported finding over 100 acres of cornfields along the White River… An Apache chief that the Anglos called Miguel, visited the camp, and invited Colonel Green to visit his village. Green sent Captain John Barry, urging him “if possible to exterminate the whole village.”

When Captain Barry arrived at Miguel’s village, however, he found white flags “flying from every hut and from every prominent point,” and “the men, women and children came out to meet them and went to work at once to cut corn for their horses, and showed such a spirit of delight at meeting them that the officers [said] if they had fired upon them they would have been guilty of cold-blooded murder…

White Mountain Apache History

3. Green returned to the White Mountains in November, and met again with the Apache leaders… They agreed to the creation of a military post and reservation, and directed Green to the confluence of the East and North Forks of the White River. Green selected the site for a military post. His reasons were the good climate, especially the air which the Indians claimed was healthy and free from malaria. In addition, the land was well wooded and contained an abundance of water. The soil was perfect and fertile. Lumber was readily available from the the pine timber. The greatest advantage according to Green: This post would be of the greatest advantage for the following reasons: It would compel the White Mountain Indians to live on their reservation or be driven from their beautiful country which they almost worship. It would stop their traffic in corn with the hostile tribes, they could not plant an acre of ground without our permission as we know every spot of it. It would make a good scouting post, being adjacent to hostile bands on either side. Also a good supply depot for Scouting expeditions from other posts, and in fact, I believe, would do more to end the Apache War than anything else.  In 1879, after many different names, the area was finally renamed Fort Apache.

4. In 1922, Fort Apache was abandoned by the army. In 1923 the site was the home for the Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Theodore Roosevelt Indian Boarding School. Originally it was intended for Navajo children, but by the 1930s the majority of the children were Apache. The school is still in use today, as an Apache middle school, and is under the administration of the Tribal Council.

5. Today the White Mountain Apache tribe, located predominately in east-central Arizona, consists of approximately 15,000 members. There are several educational institutions such as the Theodore Roosevelt School and the John F. Kennedy School under the supervision of the Indian Education Division. There are Tourists spots, wildlife recreation and a ski resort. The tribe also has a casino.

Exercise 1 Vocabulary Practice

Directions: The following vocabulary words are from the reading selection you’ve just finished. Find the words in bold  and highlight them, to help you locate the sentences, the paragraph numbers are in parenthesis.  Try to  infer the meanings from the context. Highlight any additional words that you aren’t familiar with and do the same with those. Check your answers with your group members, and then refer to your dictionary or thesaurus to confirm your guesses.

• The Apache raided the Pueblo villages for food and livestock. (1)

• In July of 1869, United States Colonel John Green led a scouting expedition into the White Mountain area…(1)

• Green sent Captain John Barry, urging him If possible to exterminate the whole village.(2)

• that the officers [said] if they had fired upon them they would have been guilty of cold-blooded murder…(2)

• …directed Green to the confluence of the East and North Forks of the White River.(3)

• The soil was perfect and fertile. (3)

• It would compel the White Mountain Indians to live on their reservation… (3)

• It would stop their traffic in corn with the hostile tribes…(3)

• It would make a good scouting post, being adjacent to hostile bands…(3)

• In 1922, Fort Apache was abandoned by the army. (4)

• Today the White Mountain Apache tribe, located predominately in east-central Arizona…(5)

Exercise 2 Discussion Questions for Comprehension

1. Why did Colonel Green wish to kill the Apache people?

2. What stopped Captain Barry from carrying out Colonel Green’s orders to “exterminate the whole village”?

3. What reasons did Green give for selecting the White Mountain area as military post?

4. According to Green what were the greatest advantages?

5. What was the final name given to the military post ?

Exercise 2 Research Activities

Directions: Choose one of the following topics to research then  present the results of your findings to the class.

• Geronimo

• Mexican-American War

• Fort Apache

Sources:

White Mountain Apache History

• Apache

An Apache Myth: Coyote Shows How He Can Lie

Before students read here is  photo of a real coyote from Britannica Advocacy for animals.

Photo of a real coyote from Britannica Advocacy for animals.

Photo of a real coyote from Britannica Advocacy for animals.

For students who would like to draw one, here is a wonderful  drawing of a coyote by Drago Art.com  the artist even provides a step by step procedure for the drawing!

Coyote drawing By Drago Art.com

Coyote drawing By Drago Art.com

1. Pre-Reading Activity – Discussion

The following myth deals with the subject of lying. Although the main character, Coyote, likes to lie, and makes a prosperous living from the lies he tells, in real life this is not the case. Lying often leads to serious consequences and pain in real situations.

Directions: Work in pairs and study the following situations. First, tell whether you would tell the truth or not tell the truth, then explain why?

Situations:

1. Your best friend is about to go to an interview for a job. She asks your opinion of her new haircut. You know the new hair style looks awful on her. You…

a. tell her the truth

b. tell a lie

c. ( give another idea)

2. You and your friend work at the same company. Your friend steals something and you saw him do it. Your supervisor tells you that either you must tell on your friend, or both of you will lose your jobs! You…

a. tell the truth

b. tell a lie

c. (your idea)

Coyote Shows How He Can Lie

Coyote came into a group of camps. The men were all sitting around. They knew Coyote was always telling lies. The men called Coyote over. “Coyote,” they said, “you are the biggest liar we’ve ever known.”

“How do you know I lie?”

“Oh people say that you always make trouble and then you lie. You get away with things like that. You are very good at it . Why don’t you teach us how to lie so we can lie successfully  and profit too?”

“Well” said Coyote, “I had to pay a big price for that power. I learned it from my enemy.”

“What did you pay?”

“One horse. But it was my best buffalo horse, with a fine bridle.”

“Is that all?”

“Yes.”

They did not think that was much, for in those days there were plenty of horses. One man brought out a fine white buffalo horse, his best.

“Yes,” said the Coyote. “This is a good-looking horse. This is the kind I mean. It was with a horse like this that I paid for my power.”

Then Coyote said, “Let me try the horse. If he doesn’t buck, I’ll explain my power.”

They agreed and Coyote got on the horse. Now Coyote had never been on a horse before and he dug in with his claws to hold on. The horse began to buck.

“Oh! This horse needs a blanket, that is the trouble,” said Coyote. They put a blanket on the horse.

But Coyote’s claws were sharp and they went through the blanket and the horse jumped again.

“Oh! He wants something more over his back. He wants a good saddle on. So they got a good saddle and helped Coyote put it on the horse. Coyote got on again and then his turned his head as though he were listening for something.

“That is my power speaking,” he said. “That voice tells me he wants a whip too.” They gave him one.

He said, “I’m going around now and try this horse to see if he still bucks. I’ll come right back and tell you about it.”

He rode off a little way and then turned around and shouted back, “This is the way I lie. I get people to give me horses, blankets and saddles and other fine things,” Then he rode away and the people couldn’t do anything about it.

2. Listening Activity

(Grammar Review: adjectives)

Directions: Listen carefully as your teacher or another student re-reads the story to you again. This time, whenever the reader introduces a character, animal or object, they will pause and give you an opportunity to write down a couple of words describing what you think they (the character, animal, or object) looked like. If you want to, you may also describe the clothing they wore. See the example below. After, each of you read your descriptions.

Example: “Coyote came into a group of camps.”

Student’s description of Coyote:

1. tall

2. brown fur

3. long bushy tail

4. he had on a red jacket with gold buttons

3. Reading Comprehension

Directions: Choose the answer that best completes the following sentences.

1. The men knew Coyote lied because___.

a.  Coyote told them he did

b.  they heard about it from other people

c.  Coyote lied to them

2. The men wanted Coyote to teach them to lie because___.

a. they could profit from lying

b. they were teasing Coyote

c.  they wanted to see if he would teach them

3. The price Coyote paid to get his power was___.

a. a tipi

b. a horse

c. a buffalo

Teachers’ Guide and Answer Key

Activities:

1. Pre-Reading Discussion Questions

Students’ choice.

The Apache: A Concise History

Exercise 1 Vocabulary Practice (words in context)

1. raid: noun. a sudden short attack

2. expedition: noun. an organized group of people undertaking a journey for a particular purpose; esp. military groups.

3. exterminate: verb. kill en masse; kill on a large scale.

4. cold-blooded: adjective. without compunction or human feeling.

5. confluence: noun. a place where things merge or flow together (especially rivers).

6. fertile: adjective. (of soil or land) producing or capable of producing abundant vegetation.

7. compel: verb. force somebody to do something;

8. hostile: adjective. characterized by enmity or ill will.

9. adjacent: adjective. having a common boundary or edge; near or close.

10. abandon [abandoned]: verb. leave behind.

11. predominately adjective. [predominate] Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence.

Exercise 2 Discussion Questions for Comprehension

1. Why did Colonel Green wish to kill the Apache people?

The Apache were known for their skills as warriors, especially their guerilla war tactics. The name Apache struck fear in the hearts of the Pueblo tribes, and others including the Spanish, Mexican and American settlers.

2. What stopped Captain Barry from carrying out Colonel Green’s orders to “exterminate the whole village”?

When Captain Barry arrived at Miguel’s village, however, he found white flags “flying from every hut and from every prominent point,” and “the men, women and children came out to meet them and went to work at once to cut corn for their horses, and showed such a spirit of delight at meeting them that the officers [said] if they had fired upon them they would have been guilty of cold-blooded murder…

3. What reasons did Green give for selecting the White Mountain area as military post?

His reasons were the good climate, especially the air which the Indians claimed was healthy and free from malaria. In addition, the land was well wooded and contained an abundance of water. The soil was perfect and fertile. Lumber was readily available from the the pine timber.

4. According to Green what were the greatest advantages?

The greatest advantage according to Green: This post would be of the greatest advantage for the following reasons: It would compel the White Mountain Indians to live on their reservation or be driven from their beautiful country which they almost worship… It would make a good scouting post, being adjacent to hostile bands on either side. Also a good supply depot for Scouting expeditions from other posts, and in fact, I believe, would do more to end the Apache War than anything else.

5. What was the final name given to the military post ?

In 1879, after many different names, the area was finally renamed Fort Apache.

Exercise 3 Research Activities

Students’ choice.

Coyote Shows How He Can Lie

1. Pre-Reading Activity – Discussion

Students’ choice

2. Listening Activity

Students’ choice

3. Reading Comprehension

1. The men knew Coyote lied because___.b. they heard about it from other people

2. The men wanted Coyote to teach them to lie because___.a. they could profit from lying

3. The price Coyote paid to get his power was___.b. a horse

4. Coyote learned his power from___.c. an enemy

5. Coyote had to pay with __.a. his white buffalo horse

6. The horse began bucking because___.a. Coyote dug his nails in his back

The Reason for The Talking Feather/Talking /Stick

The “Talking Feather” (sometimes also referred to as a”Talking Stick”) originated among Indian tribes during important *Council Circles, and served as a way for all present in the council an equal amount of time for speaking their thoughts. The Elder in charge of the council circle would begin the talk by holding the talking feather (or stick) as a signal that the meeting had begun. Once he had finished speaking, the talking feather would then be passed on to the next person who wished to speak.There were tribes who used a “Talking Stick” which served the same purpose as the feather. These Talking Feathers and Talking Sticks carried with them respect for the right of members to speak their thoughts freely without retaliation or ridicule from the other members. In historical photographs tribal members can be seen using a decorated Stick.

Legend of the Talking Feather (also known as The Talking Stick): Kanati and Asgaya Gigagei Bestow the Gift of The Talking Feather
There are many legends about how the Indians learned about the Talking Feather/Talking Stick. Read about one of them here…


Category: Lesson Plans